2018 Willys Reunion, Aurora Ohio

This year was my first time attending the Willys Reunion in Ohio, largely due to scheduling conflicts I have never made it.  But when you find out most of the Alaska or Rust crew are attending and you have not seen them for ten months, you fix the schedule!



Alaska or Rust veterans at the Willys reunion

Joe, Emily and I headed out from Maryland late Thursday afternoon after Joe rescued a project car from a mudhole/ hoarder’s house.  First part of the drive was rainy as heck but eventually it dried up and we enjoyed clear roads without traffic for most of the run.  We pulled in to the Bertram Inn and Conference Center just shy of 1am.


Arrival at Bertram Inn and Conference Center


Joe and Emily set up camp

Friday we settled in, caught up with our Alaska or Rust jeep family and took a look at the vendors and vehicles on display.


There were many vendors with a wide array of parts


Three Empire tractors, quite rare and built with Willys drivetrains.


Nice patina CJ2A


Three FC’s gathered together.

Late afternoon the Willys vehicles lined up and we headed out for a BBQ at a local park.  For a bit it seemed like the blind leading the blind but we got there and enjoyed a great meal.


Willys lined up at the park


Mortimer had trouble starting after the BBQ, turned out his electrical contacts were pretty fouled up by sludge over the winter, cleaned em up and he was good again.

After the BBQ the Alaska or Rust gang debated our plan of action and decided to hang out for the evening under the eWillys tent in the show parking lot.  This involved stocking up on adult beverages.  Oddly, many local stores closed at 8 so we went about 20 miles up the road in the rubber duck (Russ’s jeepster) to find our beverages.


Myself, Joe and Russ returning from a successful mission…we even raced some Canada Geese while Joe shouted,” this duck’s got wheels B#$@hes!!  We are silly people.


Just some of Alaska or Rust crew hanging out. Dave, Anne, Kevin and Russ.

Saturday dawned and we had work to do,  The job was to build a brand new Allied engine block into a running engine by the end of the day.  Bob Christy, Scott Gilbert and I had pulled parts from all over (with extensive parts donations from Kaiser Willys, Allied Jeeps, a head gasket from Ron Fitzpatrick G503, and more).  Still, when you have this many over worked people trying to pull together all the right parts some things will come up missing or incorrect.  There was a scramble for correct bearings, nuts and bolts etc.. and by 11am we were rolling.


New Allied L134 engine block


Joe and a few of our helpers

Many folks scrambled to get things we needed and we were even given a donation for lunch.  By mid afternoon things were really coming together.


Rick (AKA Scoutpilot) of Old Jeep Carbs LLC wrenching on the engine

By the end of the day we were pretty well shot but the engine was almost all done.  by 5:30 it was time to quit and go in for the banquet.



The banquet was quite good and for us Alaska folks it was a great time to catch up for a bit and relax.  I managed to get the last of the Alaska or Rust books handed out by the end of dinner.  I still have a handful more to mail.


Cowboy reading his copy of the book


Selfies at the banquet (L to R Cowboy, Tracey, Bill, Anne)

And after dinner the “infamous” Dave Eilers gave his talk on the journey of last summer (and Bill started plotting our next jeep jaunt!)

20180519_204441[1]Despite inclement weather the Alaska or Rust veterans gathered under the eWillys tent after Dave’s presentation and spent the evening being silly, catching up, drunk video chatting our missing members and more.


Joe cooking up hotdogs and bacon around 1am

The show was fantastic, attendance was great with a really nice variety of Willys products at hand.  If you are into Willys this show is a must attend as they put a great amount of effort into organizing it with visible results.

Turn signals on your WW2 Jeep

There are a variety of ways you can add turn signals to your WW2 jeep.  My favorite involves hiding them in the front marker lights and behind the rear reflectors. My next favorite method is to incorporate them into rear brakelights if you have one on each side (swapping out the passenger side blackout for another brakelight).


A customer recently wanted an entirely different design so we set out and came up with another style of turn signal, this will work only on WW2 Jeeps converted to 12 volts.


The parts we used were a standard 8 wire turn signal switch available from places like Walcks 4wd, bullet style motorcycle led turn signals that we found on ebay, and an led compatible flasher relay purchased from Napa. Make sure to ask for the flasher relay I photographed, standard flasher relays will not work with LED lights as LED do not draw enough current.



Wiring incorporated vintage style reproduction cotton wire where it would be visible, and standard modern wiring underneath and in areas not seen.  All connections were soldered and sealed with heat shrink tubing.  Alot of this  is available at almost any auto parts store.


The creation and installation of the system was simple but took a few hours.  With the turn signal switch comes a basic set of instructions that show you where all the wires and the fuse connect.  You need only to find a 12 volt source to connect to (like on the ignition switch) and the rest of the wiring is independent of anything else on the Jeep.


The nice thing about the motorcycle lights is their wiring runs through their threaded base, so once you drill mounting holes these lights are easily attached without having to make any brackets.



In the end the most difficult parts of this design were finding the right flasher relay and seeking out LED signal lights that looked vintage (ebay is the only place I can find these).  After that it was alot of soldering and running wire and voila, an unobtrusive turn signal system made from modern items.  This is a system simple enough for most folks to be able to install without any particular level of inventiveness required.


“For Pete’s sake”

I recived an email a while back from a fellow with a very low mileage CJ3B and a WW2 Jeep.  He wanted me to come and look over the CJ3B with an eye to making it roadworthy again and look over his WW2 Jeep just to let him know what he had.  The result was meeting a wonderful fellow who has inherited a Jeep and a passion for Jeeps from his father.


The story of the jeeps began back in 1943 when the father, Pete, shipped out with the merchant marine delivering cargoes of Jeeps to Italy.  When they had shore leave Pete would keep a spare rotor in his pocket (in WW2 Jeeps did not have keys so the men would take the rotors out of the distributors to keep Jeeps from being stolen) and he would seek out a Jeep for his weekend on the town.  Pete became very fond of Jeeps during the war.


When he returned from WW2 Pete bought a 1947 CJ2A, and then in 1960 purchased the CJ3B pictured here.  The 1959 CJ3B came from a quarry where it saw few miles, and it moved to Pete’s 60 acre farm where it roamed the woods and made occasional forays into town. Pete’s sons grew up driving the Jeep around the farm when it was running.


Over the years the Jeep had many periods of downtime and so with mainly driving on the farm and then sleeping for periods the CJ3B only racked up 1,795 miles.

When Pete passed away his son, Jonathan, spent alot of time sorting out the estate.  The jeep went to him.  As Jonathan put in long hours a friend suggested that when all was said and done he should buy something nice for himself.

Jonathan already had a plan, as his father loved WW2 jeeps so much Jonathan wanted to buy a WW2 Jeep and name it something like “battling Pete” or “For Pete’s Sake.”


It turned out the owner of his favorite gun shop had just acquired a WW2 Jeep.  Jonathan and he chatted about it and the owner brought the Willys MB to the shop for him to see.  Jonathan said he teared up because the Jeep already said, “for Pete’s sake” on the side.  It was like his father was talking to him he said.

Jonathan offered to buy the Jeep then and there but the owner wanted to keep it a bit longer.  As it goes when things are meant to be Jonathan received a phone call four months later that the Jeep was his if he wanted it.  And you can see how that went!


The 1943 Willys MB is the nicest I have ever seen.  The restoration was impeccable and it retains its original tub.  Jonathan is the owner of two real gems and I am sure his father is proud of how he carries on this family tradition.

We will be working on the CJ3B to make it roadworthy and reliable and I will post more when it comes to the shop.  I was honored to hear such a wonderful story and see such examples of Jeep history.

8th Annual Mason Dixon Willys Jeep Gathering

This show has become such a part of the year for me that I keep thinking it has gone on for much longer.  Mike Hardesty had the idea for this show after attending the Great Willys Picnic and realizing that there was nothing like it in our area.


There was quite a lineup of Willys Jeeps in all conditions from fully restored to as found condition. Seth King’s CJ2A with an awesome dually rear caps off this row.

Willys Cj2A

One of my annual favorites, an orange Jeep, belongs to Dan Lorenz.  I love the Jeep because of the story behind it. This was a jeep that he and a friend owned back in the 1970’s, he has photos of them taking it hunting out in Colorado.


They sold it in the early 1980’s probably expecting to never see it again.  Then a few years back his buddy was at a farm auction and a vintage Jeep was on the listing.  He found it with a tree growing through the floor, and recognized the modifications he and Dan had made.  (not the tree of course!)


IMG_1466Dan did a wonderful job of bringing the Jeep back to life and brings it to the mason Dixon show as well as the All Breeds jeep show in York, PA.  He has even taken it back out west and photographed in locations he took shots of it back in the 1970’s.

Kyle of East Coast Willys brought his FC again and this time it had friends.


Bill Reiss of Limestreet Carriage drove the red one all the way from their shop in Lancaster, PA.  At the end of the day the Limestreet crew lined up their Willys vehicles and headed home with the FC in the lead.

There were a good amount of parts vendors this year, new parts as well as many folks with used restorable parts for a variety of projects. Over by the parts vendors was this CJ6 with only 3600 miles on it.  Sadly the low mileage did not preserve the body of the Jeep. (This is what I was told at least.)


IMG_1452There was a nice array of military vehicles.  I had my battered slat grill out for the day and it had some WW2 buddies to hang out with along with a recently finished M38.



I set out a display of original dealer literature and posters along with this display of new old stock tools from WW2.  The pliers, adjustable wrench, and hacksaw all came from a fellow who served as an Army mechanic in WW2 through Korea.  When he left the service they gave him a toolbox packed with n.o.s. tools. And yes, that is an original drain plug tool.

IMG_1456I was extremely proud of our friend and volunteer shop assistant, Peter Tata. he worked his butt off to put together the rolling chassis of his Ford GPW to show in the projects section.


IMG_1447As always it was a wonderful gathering of the jeep family.  I had time to chat with old friends and make new ones like Roger Martin who was in the area to work on an ancient Caterpillar grader.

The weather treated us well and the jeeps sat warmly in the fall sun.  Any proceeds from the show are donated to Unions Mills Homestead who graciously host us every year.  Money was also put aside for fellow Jeeper Glenn Harrington who had a stroke last spring.  It will be a happy day when we see him at a show again.

If you have not made it to this show yet, make sure it is on your schedule for next year.


My three P’s of restoration

I really believe there are right and wrong reasons to do a vehicle restoration.  The first two P’s encompass the right reasons, the last one covers the wrong reasons.

First and foremost a personal connection is a solid reason to do a restoration.  One customer of mine has his grandmother’s VW beetle, another has us working on his uncle’s CJ2A.  Even more have memories of their grandparents talking about Jeeps, or having an old WW2 Jeep on the farm. Some even remember driving a Jeep during the war.


I grew up with my father’s 1956 Porsche always in the garage waiting for us to work on it.  In 2010 I finally was able to bring it back to life with some of my former students.  Dad always told stories of that car so for me this was a very personal connection.  Seeing him with it in one piece again meant everything to me.


He also spoke alot about his Bultaco motorcycle.  He sold it to buy the Porsche.  When I stumbled into a Bultaco I grabbed it.  Once again seeing him ride off on the Bultaco was an amazing personal experience for me and I think him.  Dad had not seen another Bultaco since he sold his in 1966.


If you have a personal connection to a vehicle then the price, pain, blood sweat and tears of a restoration is all worth it.  A personal connection is in my opinion the best driving reason for a restoration of a vintage vehicle.

Passion is the next best reason.  If you have a deep passion for something then you will see through a project to bring it to life.  Whether it be a tractor, a Jeep or any other vehicle.


WW2 attracts a huge amount of interest.  People become very passionate about the war.  Their connection to that history comes through collecting artifacts, and for many the ultimate is to own and drive a WW2 Jeep. When I sense someone has a real passion I want to work with them just as much as with someone who has a personal connection.

People are also just plain passionate about Jeeps.  Something about Jeeps and VW Beetles inspires a wonderful following of people who care for, drive and pass on their love of these vehicles to their families.  If you have a deep passion for a vehicle it will guide you through a restoration.


Profit is a major reason NOT to do a restoration.  I am going to bunch a few things under here too.  I will include in this the strange belief that restoring a vehicle will be a much cheaper way to obtain the vehicle you want.  That does not work…. Unless you are Scott Roberts, the man is a genius with vehicles.

The cost of restoring a vehicle is usually far above the cost of just going out and buying a restored version of the same vehicle.  The parts involved in a WW2 Jeep can make restoring one on your own cost more than just buying a restored one outright. I have seen people even try to save money by buying rusty battered versions of the parts they need in hopes that this will save them money.


That does not work at all.  And unless you really know what you are doing and have alot of spare time, restoring a vehicle to re-sell is not going to work either.  If you can do all the mechanical work, welding, painting etc.. then you may be fine.  If you cannot then it just is not going to work out for you.  You will end up trying to sell for $30,000 a vehicle worth $9,500.  

Here is the key: Just because you put money into a vehicle does not make it worth what you put in!  There are alot of people smoking crack out there trying to sell late WW2 Jeeps that might bring  $16,000 for over $30,000.  All I can think is that in their drug addled haze they maybe hallucinated the value they came up with. (I assume they took to drugs after their wife threw them out of the house when she saw the restoration bills.)


And yes the Jeep in these pictures was from someone involved in the third P of this lecture.

So to review: Personal connection = Good  

Passion for the vehicle = Good

Profit/ saving money = Baaaaad (don’t do it!!)

If you are in it for the right reasons, then enjoy the trip, the experience of restoration and the end results are very rewarding.


WW2 Jeep training filmstrip

For several years I was the librarian at a public high school.  We had an older retired fellow, named Dave, who volunteered in our Science classes.  He would come to the library and we would chat.  Dave owned a Willys MB in the 1970s and 80s so we found alot to talk about.  He gave me many of his books and one day brought in a bunch of WW2 Army vehicle training filmstrips.


I went through them and found one for haltracks, and of course one for Jeeps!! I do not remember what was on the others.

One of the computer graphics students took the Jeep filmstrip and scanned it in for me, then made an archive of it.


There are some wonderful detail shots.  I am particularly fond of the one with all the tools laid out.


And there are mechanical details as well.


If you want to see more of these just follow this link to my website: Jeep training

I realized that the archive is buried and many folks may not have seen it.  Included below are a last couple of samples for your enjoyment.

ImageNotice the large star on the side, I do not see many restored Jeeps with the star located there.Image

Of bugs and yellow Jeeps (How Hanson Mechanical snowballed)

I was always a VW Beetle guy.  I grew up with my father’s 1956 Porsche sleeping in the garage and when it came time for my first car my father said that I should get a beetle.  He said I would learn everything I needed to know about cars on a simple VW bug.  So we set out with the $1500 I had saved and eventually found one for sale near our home in Hunt Valley, Maryland.


 I drove the bug for years, all through college and shortly past.  I learned painting, engine swaps, electrical, all the basics.  Except for how a radiator works.  That came with my friend Scott Roberts.


I met Scott through WW2 living history and he moved in next door to me in St. Mary’s county.  With him came his WW2 Jeep that I loved.  Scott would loan it to me and I would drive it around, sometimes taking it to the State Park that I worked at.  My friend, Ray Black, was a WW2 reconnaissance veteran and he loved the Jeep. The first time Ray saw it he stood there with his hands on the hood and just talked about Jeeps for an hour or two.


Eventually I moved to Baltimore, and Scott made me a great deal on his, now I call it “our” Jeep.  Scott taught me 99% of what I know about these old fellas.  The Jeep became known in Baltimore as the “Hanson Rescue Service” for being one of the only vehicles to make it out in some of our biggest snowstorms. The Jeep helped drive shovels rescuers to a steamtug in Baltimore in the huge snow of February, 2013. After that we were at the B and O museum just after the collapse of their roundhouse.


Fast forward a few years and I had worked on a wide array of antique cars, but Beetles and Jeeps were my constant.  When I switched from teaching in public to private schools I needed some more cash due to a paycut (worth it for my sanity!!).  I was beginning to think of doing work on antique cars on the side.  Near Christmas one year I was looking on ebay and saw a bright yellow WW2 Jeep for $500.00.  It was close to my parents in Massachusetts so I bid, and won it for less then $600.00.  I figured it would be a parts vehicle.


I took my trailer to Massachusetts for Christmas and with an incoming blizzard my Dad and I set out and picked up the Jeep just in time.  Towing it back from Massachusetts events began to unfold that set Hanson Mechanical in motion is a bigger venture than I ever meant it to be.


I stopped in a rest stop outside of Scranton, PA and a woman saw the Jeep and said,”it’s a Willys!” Then she told me the often heard story of a friend who had passed away who had Jeeps and Jeep parts.  I gave her my card and that is how we ended up dealing with and eventually buying out John Barton’s estate. (as well as republishing his book!!)

The Jeep came home and in the spring a friend and I took a look at what to do with it.  It had a 1952 Kaiser straight six in it.  With a little puttering the engine purred to life.  It was installed beautifully, the front cross member moved a bit forward to handle it. Someone had engineered the installation.  The rest of the jeep was a bit of a mess though. I think I took around 20 pounds of bondo out of the tub and fenders. 


A friend of mine bought out a Jeep junkyard and soon I was making runs to Virginia to pick up frames, tubs, parts, and one very sad WW2 Jeep.  As we started working on the yellow Jeep the farm next door to me offered me their six car shop in trade for mowing the lawn.  Things just kept expanding. We took in a couple repair jobs on vintage vehicles and then a friend and customer referred the owners of the well known Jeep “Kilroy” to us for electrical work. 


By the end of a busy summer we finished the yellow Jeep, had repairs coming in, and already were spending time in John Barton’s old shop in New York state inventorying and bringing back tools, parts, and a Jeep.  By that winter we had taken in a shipment of Jeeps from Oklahoma, and were building a GPW for a National Geographic TV show.


Things basically snowballed.  I tell people that God decided I was going to run a Jeep shop.  Events happened at just the right time and place for everything to come together.  God willing we will be around for years to come as I continue to improve my project and business management skills as well as restoration skills.  Every one that we put back on and off the road is like bringing a piece of history to life for me.  Thanks to everyone who has supported us, been patient with us, and are enjoying our stories and Jeeps!! (along with the occasional VW…I have to get back to my roots sometimes!) Drive those Jeeps!!


Honor Flight

A month or so ago I was contacted by Betty who works with Ocean State Job Lots as a publicist (hope I got that right).  They were looking for a WW2 Jeep to sit in the lobby of the BWI Hilton.  The occasion? Dinner for a massive Honor Flight of WW2 veterans.


I was more than happy to bring my Jeep down for the veterans. Honor Flight is an organization flying WW2 veterans at no charge from all over the United States to see their memorial in DC.  Read more about them here: Honor Flight  This is an amazing organization doing something to say thanks to the men and women who saved the world in WW2.

My friend Butch Maisel brought items from his museum to share with the veterans.Image

The first veteran who came in on a wheelchair looked at his guardian (the volunteers who assist each veteran) and said, “see, I knew I left my Jeep here!” My friend, Ed Embry, speaks with him below.Image

The next fellow in lit up and kept saying,” A Jeep! A Jeep!” There were so many veterans and they were delightful to speak with.  Many wanted to sit in the Jeep.  The fellow below was extremely intent on sitting in the Willys MB. Ed finally was able to help him in the passenger seat.  Quite honestly we would have done anything to get him in it as he wanted to sit in the Jeep so much.Image

I had my toolbox open on the fender of the Jeep and turned around at one point to hear a man exclaim,” I have this at home.” I ended up speaking with Mr. Sennett for quite a while as we sorted through the tools and shared stories of working on Jeeps and how we used certain tools.  He worked on assembling Jeeps in Europe.  I have never had the chance to chat with a WW2 mechanic and do not know how to describe the experience of sharing knowledge, tricks and stories.  Mr. Sennett is someone I could spend hours talking to, heck, so many of these men and women are.




Job Lots, Honor Flight, and all others involved go all out for the veterans.  There was even a trio of singers from the USO who performed beautifully.Image

Honor Flight hung a banner for the veterans and guardians to sign.Image

Towards the end of the evening I saw a veteran in his wheelchair by the banner. He waved me over and said, “thank you, you really made our day.” I thought he was speaking of the entire Honor Flight.  But a few minutes later I found him by the Jeep. He pointed at it and repeated his thanks again.

And all I can say and think is thank you. Thanks to Honor Flight for doing this for the greatest men and women I have known. Thanks for allowing us to share in this experience and bring to life so many memories.

And to our veterans…..Image

Thank you….. for everything.

Convoy 2013 as recorded by Sergeant Hanson


0500: Awaken to Leftenant Randall happily announcing that it is time to wake up….. I lie in sleeping bag and contemplate killing him.

0530: I climb out of sleeping bad and find coffee. CWACs (Canadian Womens Army Corps) are wonderful, they give us coffee.

0530 to 0630: We decide which team will ride in which Jeep, and then change our minds many many times.  On the plus side the nice CWAC women gave us breakfast bags to take on our mission.

0645: Three jeeps leave encampment for rally point.  Captain Hunter,  CWAC nurse Gutarra, and Trooper Tata ride with me.

setting out

setting out

0700: At rally point.. chat with Yanks, receive ammunition, stand around….hurry up and wait.

0730(ish): We embark on our mission.  The Yank in front of us falls farther and farther behind the convoy.  We mutter a lot.Image

0745: Captain Hunter regales us with tales of his deployment in Africa.

0800: Captain Hunter offers me a cigar. Excitement ensues until we realize we cannot light the damn things in an open vehicle with the windshield down. Sadness then ensues.  We curse the slow Yank some more.

0820: Ambushed!! Happily the Jerries decide to play with the Yanks up front.  Trooper Tata settles in to guard our front right wheel.  None of us die and we get a chance to light our cigars.


0840: More country roads. Enjoy the scenary.

0900: Arrive near town of Nouveau Oxford.  Yanks and Commonwealth form up and armored vehicles move in to support. ImageImageImage

0905: Jeeps await signals of road clear to move forward.


0912: Begin moving forward as Captain Hunter signals bridge cleared.  Follow slowly and move forward on signals over bridge and down an alley.

0920: Begin moving up main road.  Trooper Tata has captured two Jerries. Corproal Connolly seems to be dead. A Yank friend is hit and a Yank officer and I run into the road and pull him out for medical attention. Lt. Manweiler attends to the wounded American.Image

1000: We are at the center of Nouveau Oxford.  Jerries ceased playing with us and surrender.  I find one Jerry playing dead and absolve him of his death. We chat a bit before he is herded with other prisoners. He was 81 years old and veteran of the last war.  The Jerries are truly pulling every man they can to the front. The townspeople are celebrating their liberation.


We had a great time on the convoy from Eisenhower farm in Gettysburg to New Oxford PA. Thanks to Bob Buker and his crew for organising another wonderful event!!

All Breeds Jeep Show York, PA

This past Saturday I drove the 1941 Willys MB to the 18th annual All Breeds Jeep Show in York, PA.  the show is sponsored by PA Jeeps. This is largely a celebration of customized off road Jeeps but there are a few vintage gems scattered about.  First thing I did was pull into the short row of original military Jeeps.


Jeremy, owner of the early 1942 GPW, and his co-pilot Patrick were ecstatic to see another WW2 Jeep show up.  We had a great time talking WW2 Jeeps and seeing who knew who in the Jeep network.  I loved the well used appearance of their GPW.  Jeremy and Patrick even took their GPW on the off road course (doing some damage to their exhaust).  A short while later the ambulance pulled in. After a bit I set to wandering the show to see what other vintage Jeeps were in attendance.Image

If you had $350 you could purchase this CJ2A body set.  I wish I had a frame to drop this on. A short bit down the aisle from this project was a running chassis that this would have fit nicely on.


In the vintage Jeeps row was this beautiful 1956 Civil Defense wagon.  I have seen it at another show as well.  It is in wonderful condition and equipped quite well.ImageImage

In the Chrysler Jeep display was this project.  It is a 1962 Willys wagon mated to a 2004 Jeep chassis.  The wagon was literally taken out of the Jeep archives where it had sat since new. This makes for a practical vintage style vehicle.ImageImage

Kyle of the East Coast Willys Association (join the association please!!) brought his nice FC with a dump bed, and his M38.  I love the FCs and Kyle’s seemed the sole representative at the show. I also enjoyed finally meeting Kyle.  He is putting a great effort into creating a club for pre 1970 Jeep owners.

The final Jeep that really stood out to me was this Jeep Golden Eagle pickup.Image

This was a low mileage all original example with a Levi’s denim interior.  It stood out to me because my grandfather had a Jeep Honcho with a Levi’s interior.  I grew up with that truck traveling around New Hampshire. It had only around 33,000 miles and was amazingly rust free when we sold it back to the very ungrateful original owners.  Yep, that is one that my Dad and I kick ourselves over.

If you did not make it to the All Breeds Jeep Show I can recommend a truly vintage flat fender show coming up October 27th here in Westminster.  Visit Jeepchasm for more information.